Cold atoms, cooled and trapped in magneto-optical traps by laser cooling techniques, allow the investigation of a number of new phenomena in science, from the creation of ultracold quantum gases and Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), as the new state of matter, to the development of a new generation of atomic clocks, which are as today’s time standard an indispensable foundation for technological development (e.g. GPS). The studies close to absolute zero temperature include: quantum atomic optics, quantum information, atomic interferometry, controlled chemical reaction, ultrasound plasma, etc.
Ultracold quantum gases provide a unique opportunity for quantum simulation of complex many-body systems, which can not be solved using today’s computers. Quantum simulators, using a well-known and controllable quantum system (ultracold atomic gas in an optical lattice), explore the behavior and properties of another, computationally hard-to-reach, quantum system. High level of control, new detection techniques and extreme parametric regimes, that can be achieved in such “artificial matter”, open up new exciting research possibilities in the field of condensed matter physics.